Glossary of Terms
30-Sheet Poster (see Poster)
8-Sheet Poster (see Junior Poster)
Advertiser Market (Trading Area)
A custom market (often a group of counties) defined by an advertiser or retailer. The market definition is typically based on sales or other marketing criteria relevant to the product. (See Custom Market)
The number of units required to achieve a desired GRP level in a market. Traditional poster panel showings consist of a quantity of displays that will vary by the size of the audience and the size of the market population.
Out of media that is used to create customized advertising programs that generally target specific consumer audiences. Alternative Out of Home media includes, but is not limited to: arena and stadiums, interior placed based, convenience stores, video networks, health clubs/restaurants/bars, exterior placed based (i.e. airborne, marine, resorts and leisure).
AADT – Annual Average Daily Traffic
Measurement representing the total number of vehicles passing a specific highway location, based on 24 hour counts taken over an entire year. Counts are adjusted to an estimate of annual average daily traffic; taking into account seasonal variance, weekly changes and other factors. AADT’s are input used by Geopath to develop circulation information.
The distance measured along the line of travel from the point where an advertising unit first becomes fully visible to the point where the copy is no longer readable.
The size of an audience that notices Out of Home advertising usually measured over one or more weeks. Audience delivery can be represented using several definitions, including: Impressions, ratings, and reach & frequency.
The Geopath independently audits inventory locations and collects and aggregates circulation data for Out of Home media according to established national procedures approved by the buy and seller community.
The recalled recognition of an Out of Home advertising message by an individual or audience. Ad awareness is influenced by creative copy and the consumer’s relationship with the product or category. (see Noticing and Engagement).
Large format advertising displays intended for viewing from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Billboard displays include, but not limited to: 30-sheet posters, 8-sheet posters, vinyl-wrapped posters, and bulletins.
The largest standardized Out of Home format; typically measuring 14′ x 48′ in overall size. Sold either as permanent displays or in rotary packages.
CBSA (Core Based Statistical Area)
Defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, a metropolitan area(s) within larger markets (e.g. DMAs) containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. CBSA’s are a standard geography for buying and selling media.
The audience delivered by an Out of Home advertising schedule, expressed in impressions and/or gross rating points (GRPs). Reach & frequency can also be used. Campaign delivery is most valuable when expressed using the demographic target and market definition of the advertiser.
The process of selecting and scheduling individual unit locations to maximize Out of Home advertising objectives.
A measurement of traffic volume in a market. Circulation only estimates the number of people with an opportunity to see an Out of Home display and, therefore, is no longer a credible measure of an Out of Home audience and is out of step with other media metrics.
Audience estimates of people exposed to actual advertising. Geopath Ratings is the first media measurement system providing true commercial audiences who see advertising rather than audiences that are merely exposed to editorial content (e.g. read a magazine, read a newspaper or tuned to a TV program, etc.)
The advertising displayed on an outdoor unit. The quality of the ad’s creative design can impact the number of people who notice it (see Noticing).
1. Based on the defined geographic parameters of a market, expressed as DMAs, CBSAs, groups of counties, or individual counties, also known as coverage area.
2. Coverage can also be the percent of the population within any of these geographic areas that can be reached by the total inventory of a media operator.
CPM – Cost Per Thousand
1. A Geopath Ratings derived CPM is the cost of delivering 1000 impressions from individuals who see the advertising on displays in a market.
2. Traditional measures used by other media do not provide likelihood-to-see CPMs, but rather only the cost of delivering 1,000 opportunities-to-see-advertising, i.e. people who may or may not see the advertising.
CPP – Cost per Gross Ratings Point
The cost of advertising exposure opportunities that equals one gross rating point in any geographically defined market or the delivery of in-market impressions (EOIs) equal to one percent of the population (gross).
A section of road with a specific traffic pattern. Count stations contain traffic estimates and the demographic composition of that traffic. All displays assigned to a count station start with same traffic count used to measure circulation levels. A display may have more than one count station based if it can be seen from more than on road.
Creative (see copy)
An advertising display which is visible across traffic lanes on the opposite side of the roadway.
Any market used by a plant or advertiser other that a DMA or CBSA. Custom markets are used by plants or advertisers to highlight Out of Home delivery within relevant geographic areas. Custom markets are generally counties or groups of counties.
DEC – Daily Effective Circulation
The total number of persons, in cars or other vehicles, passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (un-illuminated – 6:00am to 6:00pm), 18 hours (illuminated – 6:00am to 12:00 midnight) or 24 hours. While circulation information remains a valuable component in the ratings system, they are not a measure of a targetable audience viewing advertising and are no longer endorsed as a buying and selling currency by the members of Geopath.
Target audiences used to plan, buy and sell media. The demographic audiences available for Geopath Ratings include age, sex, race, ethnicity and income.
The interval of time when an outdoor advertising campaign is run.
The strategic placement of outdoor units across a market. The distribution of units will impact the reach of the campaign and the demographic profile of the audience that is delivered.
Digital Out Of Home Media
Any Out of Home display that can change its advertising content using addressable technology.
DMA – Designated Market Area
A television market area defined by Nielsen Media Research that is also used by advertisers for multi-media planning. DMAs are non-overlapping and cover the entire United States.
The degree of value delivered to an audience relative to the audience that is delivered and cost. Usually expressed as either CPM (cost per thousand) or CPP (cost per gross rating point).
Recently developed or introduced outdoor formats.
EYES ON Audience Measurement
The original name for what is now Geopath Ratings.
Exposure (see Noticing)
The reasonable opportunities for advertising to be seen and read.
The surface area on an outdoor unit where advertising copy is displayed. A structure may have more than one face.
The cardinal direction that an outdoor unit faces. As an example, a north facing bulletin is viewed by vehicles traveling south.
The length of an advertising campaign, sometimes divided into distinct segments over the course of weeks.
1. The average number of times an individual notices an out of home advertising message during a defined period of time. Frequency in outdoor advertising is typically measured over a four week period, but can be reported for any campaign length. 2. For other media, it is the average number of times an individual has an opportunity to see an advertising message during a defined period of time.
Gross Impressions (Total Impressions)
1. The sum of impressions delivered against a demographic audience for an advertising schedule. Unless specified, they include all individuals; regardless of the origins of their trips (see In-Market Impressions). 2. The gross impressions reported for other media are estimates of opportunity to see the advertising to rather that those who notice it.
Gross Rating Points (GRPs)
The total number of in-market impressions delivered by an Out of Home schedule expressed as a percentage of a market population. Â One rating point represents Impressions equal to 1% of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total impressions must first be reduced to the in-market of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market’s population.
An outdoor unit equipped with lighting that provides night time illumination of an advertising message, usually from dusk until midnight. The impressions for an illuminated unit are calculated using an 18 or 24 hour viewing period.
Impressions (aka EOIs)
The total number of times people passing an OOH display are likely to notice the ad for either 12 hours (un-illuminated; 6:00am to 6:00pm), 18 hours (illuminated; 6:00am to Midnight) or 24 hours. Unless specified as in-market, impressions include all persons who notice the unit, regardless of the origin of their trips. Impressions are reported in weekly increments.
The total number of times people passing an OOH display that live in a defined market (e.g. a DMA or CBSA), are likely to notice an ad on an OOH display. In-market impressions exclude impressions derived from people who travel into or through the market, but live outside of it. In-market impressions are the audience from which GRPs are calculated.
A standardized poster format, typically measuring 6′ x 12′; formally known as an 8 Sheet.
LTS – Likelihood to See
The portion of the OTS (Opportunity to See) audience who are likely to see an ad. Out Of Home is the first medium in the US to move from reporting OTS audiences (circulation) to LTS (Likely to See) audiences which can also be referred to as commercial audiences.
A listing of all locations and displays included in a specific outdoor program.
Back-lit advertising structures located at strategic points in shopping malls; usually two or three-sided.
Geographically defined areas used to buy and sell media. Standard markets definitions are DMAs and CBSAs. Out of Home media companies and advertisers also use custom geographies based on their geographic coverage of their panel or product sales distribution areas respectively.
The combination of media types and associated audience weight levels used together to meet the objectives of a media plan (advertising campaign).
A truck equipped with one or more poster panel units. The truck can either be parked at specified venues or driven around designated localities.
As derived from Geopath’s visibility research, a physiological or behavioral measure of actual eye contact with an out of home media unit and its advertising. Geopath Ratings are derived from the adjustment of circulation or passing to those who notice the advertising.
A sign that advertises products or services that are not sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located. An outdoor display is an off-premise sign.
A sign that advertises products or services that are sold, produced, manufactured or furnished on the property where the sign is located.
Out of Home Media (OOH)
All media formats specifically intended to reach consumers outside the home.
The term primarily associated with billboards, street furniture, transit and alternative media.
OTS – Opportunity to See
A basic measure of media exposure. OTS estimates are measures of media exposure (e.g. magazine readership or the TV program exposures) and not the advertising. OTS is today’s standard for reporting ratings for all media types except Out Of Home. Circulation-based measures are no longer used, OTS measures for Out of Home media.
Out of Home Video Networks
Place-based video networks that offer editorial content and video advertising. They include in-store, health clubs and other venues.
The percent of the total audience for a display or schedule that a brand target demographic group comprise (e.g. 65% of the total impressions for Adults 18+ were Men 24-64).
PDEC – Pedestrian Daily Effective Circulation
The total number of pedestrians passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (un-illuminated; 6:00am to 6:00pm), 18 hours (illuminated; 6:00am to Midnight), or 24 hours. While PDECs remain a valuable measure of circulation, they are not a measure of audience and are not endorsed as a buying and selling currency by Geopath.
A bulletin, used in an advertising campaign, where the advertising remains permanently located at a specified site throughout the term of a contract, usually for long periods. A permanent bulletin program can build strong brand recognition in specific market areas.
A structure that houses public telephones and offers advertising displays.
A term used to identify a media company and its entire outdoor advertising inventory in a market.
Plant Defined Market
A custom market defined by a plant usually established based on the geographic coverage of its inventory.
The total number of people who live within a market. The population can be segmented by key demographic groups. Populations (also referred to as universe estimates) of defined geographic areas are the bases from which rating points are calculated.
A standardized poster format, typically measuring 12’3″ x 24’6″; formally known as a 30-Sheet Poster.
A standardized display format, typically measuring 12′ 3″ x 24′ 6″ in overall size. Premiere panel units offer the impact of a bulletin by utilizing a single vinyl face stretched over a standard 30-sheet poster panel.
A standardized display format, typically measuring 25′ 5″ x 24′ 6″ in overall size. The premiere square utilizes a single vinyl stretched over two stacked 30-sheet poster panels. In some markets, this same technique can be applied to stacked 8-sheet poster panels, typically measuring 12′ 6″x 12′ 1″ in overall size.
P-O-P – Proof-of-Performance
Certification by an outdoor company that contracted advertising services has been rendered. Geopath Ratings are official measures of audience weight (audience delivery) are essential components of POP.
1. The total number of in-market impressions delivered by an Out of Home display expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents impressions equal to 1% of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total impressions must first be reduced to the in-market impressions of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market’s population base. 2. Rating points for other media are based on opportunity-to-see audiences and not audiences viewing advertising.
1. The approximate percentage of a target audience’s population who notice an advertising message at least once during an Out of Home campaign. 2. For other media, the percentage of a target audience’s population who has an opportunity to see an advertising message at least once during an advertising campaign.
Reach & Frequency
1. For Out of Home media, estimates of the number of people, within a market, who notice at least one ad in an advertising campaign – reach and the average number of times an individual will see it – frequency. 2. For other media, estimates of the number of people, within a market, who have an opportunity to see one ad in an advertising campaign – reach and the average number of times an individual might have the opportunity to see it.
The physical inspection of the units that comprise an outdoor program in a market – either pre-buy or post-buy.
A standard 14′ x 48′ bulletin, used in an advertising campaign, where the advertising rotates different locations in a market at fixed intervals, usually every 60 or 90 days, to achieve greater reach in the market.
The traditional way of selling Out of Home media. A level of delivery that directly relates to the population of the market. Typical showing levels are: #100, #75, #50 and #25 Showings. The number of panels involved in an actual showing varies by market population and the average circulation level of the market’s inventory. With the industry migration to Geopath Ratings, this traditional definition must be translated into weekly levels of actual audience delivery in a standard media market.
Any structure used to display information regarding a product or service. An outdoor unit is a sign.
A bulletin that is usually larger than 14′ x 48′ and is positioned at a prime location in a market. A spectacular often utilizes special embellishments.
A map showing all locations included in a specific outdoor program.
Outdoor units constructed in accordance with the specifications established by the OAAA.
Advertising displays, many that provide a public amenity, positioned at close proximity to pedestrians for eye-level viewing or at a curbside to impact vehicular traffic. Street furniture displays include, but are not limited to: transit shelters, newsstands/news racks, kiosks, shopping mall panels, convenience store panels and in-store signage.
Major streets in towns or cities that carry a heavy flow of vehicular traffic.
In the Geopath ratings system, any audience reflecting the most desired consumer prospects for a product or service, defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity or income; or their combinations for any geographic definition.
Target Rating Points – TRPs
1. The total number of in-market impressions, to a target audience, delivered by an Out of Home display expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents impressions equal to 1% of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total impressions must first be reduced to the in-market impressions of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market’s population. 2. For other media, Target Rating Points are based on opportunity to see audiences.
To and Through Audience
A portion of the total impressions for a display that is comprised of people who do not live in the neighborhood but travel past the unit. The demographic characteristics of the to and through audience can be significantly different from those of people who live in the surrounding neighborhood. All Geopath ratings are based on to and through audiences.
Geopath’s third party verification of traffic circulation in a market. Traffic audit information is used in the calculation of ratings.
The recording of the vehicles and pedestrians passing a given point; used by Geopath to authenticate the circulation that passes outdoor advertising structures. Traffic counts are a basic component of Geopath measurement.
A component of Geopath measurement, traffic origin information is used to produce to and through traffic estimates that determine the amount of total impressions for a display derived from people who live outside of the market and those in the market.
Displays affixed to moving public transportation vehicles or in the common areas of transit terminals and stations. Transit displays include, but are not limited to: bus panels, train/rail panels, airport panels, taxi panels and mobile advertising signage.
Transit poster (bus)
Posters attached to the exterior of buses. Common displays are king panels, queen panels and tail panels. King panels are on the street-side of the bus. Queen panels are on the curb side of the bus. And tail panels are on the back of the bus.
Transit poster (commuter rail)
Posters displayed in commuter rail stations and on trains.
A curbside structure located at regular stopping points along urban bus routes.
An outdoor unit with a slatted face that allows three different copy messages to revolve at intermittent intervals.
An outdoor unit that has not been equipped with lighting for nighttime illumination of an advertising message. The impressions for an un-illuminated unit are calculated using a 12 hour viewing period.
Any outdoor advertising display.
VAIs – Visibility Adjustment Index
A ratio or the percentage of a unit’s total OTS audience (circulation) who are likely to notice an ad. VAI’s are derived from Geopath’s visibility study. The impact of common board characteristics, size, road side, distance from the road, road type, and illumination are taken into consideration. VAIs are not measures of audience.
Murals painted or attached directly onto the exterior surface of a building.